Steroid hormones, also known as steroid hormones. It has great medical value. In the maintenance of life, regulating sexual function, the development of the body, immune regulation, skin disease treatment and birth control has a clear role. The discovery and development of steroid hormone drugs is an important stage in the development of the field of pharmaceutical chemistry.
Steroid hormones are a class of fat-soluble hormones that are structurally cycloprene polyhydrofi derivatives. The adrenal hormones of vertebrates can be divided into adrenal corticosteroids and sex hormones. (1) Adrenal corticosteroids. Adrenal corticosteroids are produced by the secretion of adrenal myelin. There are currently more than 30 steroid compounds isolated from adrenal cortex extracts, and the following are known to have physiological effects.
The physiological function of adrenal corticosteroids is mainly manifested in two aspects:
(1) Regulating sugar metabolism: inhibits the oxidation of sugar and raises blood sugar; Promotes the conversion of protein into sugar. This function includes corticosteroids, 11-dehydrocortisones, 17-hydroxycorticosis (hydrogenated cortisone) and 17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocortisone (cortisone) . These hormones also have good anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic effect, is commonly used hormone drugs.
(2) Regulating water salt metabolism: promote the retention of sodium ions in the body and the discharge of excessive potassium ions, regulate water salt metabolism. These hormones include 11-deoxycortisone, 17-hydroxy-11-deoxycortisone and aldehyde corticosteroids. Among them, the regulatory effect of aldehyde corticosteroids on water salt metabolism is 30-120 times larger than that of deoxycortisone.
Adrenal corticosteroid secretion disorders, will cause sugar metabolism and inorganic salt metabolism disorders and develop symptoms.
(2) Sex hormones. Sex hormones belong to steroids, can be divided into male hormones and estrogen two categories. They are related to the sex of animals and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. The secretion of sex hormones is regulated by the pituitary gonadotropin.
(1) Andronom: Important in androgens are testosterone, androbutone, and dehydroiscosterone. Testosterone is secreted by intersometa cells in the testes and is the most important male hormone in the body. Oxytocin, pyrobuttes and dehydroxoxone are metabolites of testosterone (testosterone, maleketone, and dehydrogenated isoctones).
The adrenal cortex also secretes a male hormone, the adrenal androdone.
Male hormones mainly promote the development and maintenance of male sexual organs and second sex traits, as well as promote protein synthesis, so that the body muscles developed. Testosterone is most active in male hormones, 6 times as much as androdone and 18 times as active as dehydroiscosterone, respectively. Various male hormones can be divided into two categories.
(2) Estrogen: Estrogen can be divided into two categories.
Folosin: Secreted by the ovaries, including estanoids, estradiol and estaol. It has the functions of promoting sexual organ development, ovulation, and promoting second sexual development. Of these, estradiol is most active, about 6 times as active as estanosande and 200 times as active. These three hormones can be converted into each other in the body.
Progesterone : The production secreted by the progesterone of the ovaries is mainly progesterone ( also known as progesterone ). It promotes uterine and breast development and prevents abortion.
The functions of male hormones and estrogens are very different, but they are structurally similar. Both sex hormones can be derived from cholesterol, and they can change in the body. It has been shown that there is a certain proportion of both sex hormones in both male and female animals, and there is a balance between them, with more male hormones in male animals and more estrogenin in femaleanimals.
The mechanism of action of steroid hormones — gene expression theory. Steroid hormone steroid hormone smaller molecular mass and is fat-soluble, can be diffused or carrier transport into the target cell, hormone into the cell is first bound with the receptor in the plasma, forming a hormone-receptor complex, this compound at the appropriate temperature and With the participation of Ca2 plus, the ability to transpose through the nuclear membrane. When the hormone enters the nucleus, it binds to the internal receptor to form a complex. This compound binds to the specific heteroposition of the non-hissomel of chromatin to initiate or inhibit the DNA transcription process of the part bit, thereby promoting or suppressing mRNA? The formation, resulting in the induction or reduction of the synthesis of certain proteins (mainly enzymes) to achieve their biological effects. A hormone molecule can produce thousands of protein molecules, enabling hormone amplification.
When the hormones react to muscle activity during muscle activity, the hormone levels of various hormones, especially the mobilization of energy supply, change in different degrees and affect the body’s metabolic level and the functional level of each organ. Certain hormone content during movement and post-exercise recovery was measured and compared with quiet values, the change was called the hormone reaction of exercise. The main hormones’ response to exercise and adaptation can be found in Table 12-2. Viru classifies hormones into three types of reaction symmers based on how quickly and slowly the amount of various hormones in the plasma changes during exercise.
Fast-reactive hormones, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenal corticosteroids, are significantly increased in the plasma immediately after the start of exercise.
After the intermediate-reaction hormone movement begins, the hormone swells slowly and steadily in the plasma and peaks within a few minutes, such as aldosterone, thyroxine, and boost. ?
The hormone does not change in the plasma immediately after the start of the slow-reaction hormone movement, and rises slowly when the movement reaches 30 to 40min, peaking later in time, such as growth hormone, glucagon, calcium-lowering, and insulin.
Microenzyme synthase is a protein produced by living microbial cells that act as a catalyst for specific reactions in the biological system. As a catalyst, the microbial enzyme can accelerate three reactions: hydrolysis reaction, oxidation reaction and synthesis reaction. Microbial enzymes can be catalyzed within living cells, or they can act through substances outside the cell, the former is called an enzymatic enzyme, and the latter is called an exoenzyme.
Microenzyme synthase is a protein produced by living microbial cells that act as a catalyst for specific reactions in the biological system. As a catalyst, microbial enzymes can accelerate three reactions: hydrolysis reactions, oxidation reactions, and synthetic reactions. Microbial enzymes can be catalyzed within living cells, or they can act through substances outside the cell, the former is called an enzymatic enzyme, and the latter is called an exoenzyme.
The catalytic process of the enzyme is a two-step reaction: E s , S, Es, E , P Enzyme Matrix Enzyme Enzyme Enzyme sitorite is specific.
Enzyme activity is significantly affected by environmental conditions, the main physical environmental conditions are: temperature, oxygen demand and pH, these conditions are the most important factors in the biological treatment of wastewater.