Through hormone regulation

Hormone regulation: regulated by chemicals secreted by endocrine organs (or cells)

Hormone regulation is the main content of body fluid regulation, body fluid regulation and CO2,H, and so on.

Distinction: hormone regulation and body fluid regulation

Endocrine glands: no catheters, which are transported through body fluids to secrete hormones

External secretion glands: there are catheters, transported through catheters, secreted digestive enzymes (intestinal glands, gastric glands, salivary glands, sweat glands, tear glands)

The main hormones of the human body and their effects

Hormone secretion site Hormone Name Key roles
Hypothalamus Anti-diuretic hormones Regulation of water balance, blood pressure
A variety of hormone-releasing hormones Regulating important physiological processes such as endocrine
Pituitary Growth hormone Promotes protein synthesis and growth
Multiple hormone-promoting hormones Control the activity of other endocrine glands
Thyroid Thyroid hormones (Includes I) Promotes metabolism, promotes growth and development (including the development of the central nervous system), and increases the excitability of the nervous system.  
Adrenal Adrenal hormones Participate in the body’s stress response and body temperature regulation and many other life activities
Islet Insulin Glucagon Regulating Blood Sugar Dynamic Balance
Ovarian Estrogen, etc. Promotes the development of female sexual organs, the development of egg cells and ovulation, stimulates and maintains second sexual characteristics, etc.
Testis Androgens Promotes the development of male sexual organs, sperm production, stimulates and maintains male second sexual characteristics

The principle of castration fertilization is to cut off the reproductive glands of livestock so that they do not have sexual behavior and reproductive capacity, and tame well, save energy, and facilitate fattening.

The Chemical Nature of Hormones

(1) sterol hormones: sex hormones.

(2) Amino acid derivatives hormones: thyroid hormones, epinephrine.

(3) Peptides and protein hormones: hormones secreted by the hypothalamus and pituitary glasis, insulin and glucagon.

Third, the adjustment of blood sugar balance

External secretion: secretion of pancreatic fluid

1 Pancreas Islet A cells: glucagon

Endocrinology: Islet

Islet B cells: insulin

2. The source and whereabouts of blood sugar

★ creatine is transformed into lactic acid in muscle cells and cannot be broken down into glucose

(Important test points, must distinguish between hepatic glycogen and creation)

3, blood sugar regulation process

(1) The center of blood glucose regulation is in the hypothalamus.  

(2) The regulation of blood glucose balance is neuro-body fluid regulation

(3) The main hormones involved in regulation are insulin and glucagon.  Then there’s the adrenaline.

Insulin acts in contrast to glucagon, called antagonist.

(4) Abnormal insulin secretion

Less secretion: Diabetes (more urine: take away a lot of water when draining sugar)

Cause of diabetes: islet B cells damaged, resulting in insufficient insulin secretion

Symptoms: Three more than one less (more food, more drink, more urine, weight loss)

Prevention and control: the use of regulation and control of diet combined with drugs

4, the meaning of blood sugar balance

The normal blood sugar concentration of the person is 3.9-6.1mmol/L (or 80-120mg/dl),which guarantees the energy supply of the body’stissues and organs to maintain human health.

The graded regulation and feedback regulation of thyroid hormone secretion

1, thyroid hormone function

Thyroid hormone function (1) promotes metabolism (2) promotes growth and development (3) improves nervous system excitability

2. Regulation of thyroid hormone secretion

Grading Adjustments

The hypothalamus is able to control the pituitary gland, a layered control of the associated glands in a way called grading regulation.

How to adjust: Negative feedback

Types and examples of feedback tuning

Feedback adjustment is divided into positive and negative feedback.

(1) Positive feedback: strengthen and deviate from resting levels, such as urination, blood clotting, fetal delivery, pond pollution after fish death is more aggravated pollution.

(2) Negative feedback (prevalence): after deviation to correct regression to resting level, more common in organisms, such as temperature regulation, blood sugar regulation, etc.

3, thyroid hormone secretion abnormalities

Too much secretion: hyperthyroidism — meldonium (irritable)

Too little secretion: insufficient thyroid function (mental atrophy)

Iodine deficiency: endemic goiter (large neck disease)

Iodine deficiency in infants and young children: susceptible to microcephaly

4. The interaction between hormones

(1) Synergy: Different hormones play the same role in the same physiological effects, such as growth hormone and thyroid hormone in promoting growth and development.

(2) Antagonistic effects: Different hormones play the opposite effect on the same physiological effects, such as insulin and glucagon, which are antagonising in regulating blood sugar.

Six. Characteristics of hormone regulation

(1) Micro and efficient

(2) Transported by body fluids

(3) Acting on target organs and target cells.

Hormone Name Target organs (or target cells)
Thyroid hormones Almost whole body tissue cells
Thyroid-stimulating hormone release hormone Pituitary
Thyroid-stimulating hormone Thyroid
Anti-diuretic hormones Kidney tube, collection tube
Insulin Almost whole body tissue cells
Glucagon Mainly in liver cells

Target cells of common hormones

The target cells of thyroid hormones are systemic cells;

The target cell of thyroid-stimulating hormone release hormone is the pituitary gland; 

The target cells of anti-diuretic hormones are the kidney tube, the collection tube,  and the target cells of glucagon are mainly liver cells.

The difference and connection between neuromodulation and hormone regulation

1. Difference

Comparing projects Neuromodulation Body fluid regulation
Pathways of action Reflection Arc Body fluid transport
Reaction speed Quickly Slower
Scope of action Accurate, comparative limitations Wider
Time of action Short Longer

(2) Relationship:

(1) Endocrine glands are regulated by the central nervous system, and body fluid regulation can be seen as a link in neuroregulation.

(2) Hormones can also affect the development and function of the nervous system, which often regulates life activity at the same time.

Note:CO2 stimulates the respiratory center so that breathing speeds up and belongs to the body fluid regulation

Body temperature regulation

1. Body temperature regulation center: located in the hypothalamus.  

2, heat balance: heat and heat dissipation should maintain dynamic balance

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3, build a temperature regulation model

Key Test Points:

(1) Body temperature regulation center: hypothalamus;

(2) The formation of cold and warm sensations in the cerebral cortex.  (The body’s sensory center is the cerebral cortex)

(3) Warm or cold-feeling receptors are distributed in the skin mucous membranes, internal organs;

(4) Regulation: Neuro-body fluid regulation

Regulation of water salt balance

1, water balance adjustment center: hypothalamus

2, the adjustment process

3, the mode of regulation: nerve-body fluid regulation

Summary

(1) The regulation of human water balance is the regulation of nerves and body fluids.  

(2) The adjustment center of water balance is in the hypothalamus, and the thirst center is in the cerebral cortex.

(3) Anti-diuretic hormones are secreted by the hypothalamus nerve cells and released by the pituitary gland.  

(4) Anti-diuretic hormone effect: promote seine tube and collection tube re-absorption of water

(5) Regulation: Neuro-body fluid regulation

Note:

The life activities of animals are often regulated by both nerves and body fluids, which are dominated by neuroregulation.

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